As speaking from the present day, it seems like we’ve all celebrated our 1 year-anniversary with COVID-19 being aside. Although this devastating pandemic machine deprived us from many simple things, previously taken for granted, it also taught the global community a lot of important lessons, that are here to stay here for AT LEAST the rest of our lives.
What matters the most, the coronavirus made us join forces in combating the enemy, think one step ahead of it, develop a future full of opportunities, instead of waiting for the inevitable to come and strike.
“Are there any safe, low-cost and easy to access COVID-19 vaccines?”
Though the answer to that is definitely a positive one, none of them is on the global market yet, and has achieved SaNOtize success.
However, it’s worth seeing what possibilities the future holds in a store for the days to come, isn’t it?
Let’s have a look at where in the world intranasal COVID-19 vaccines are being developed, as these appear to be a perfect solution and an excellent perspective for finding a SARS-CoV-2 cure:
1. Rokote Laboratories, Finland.
The noble company, emerged from University of Eastern Finland (UEF) and University of Helsinki (UHEL) lays their study in a single-dose vaccine of a cloned DNA strand inside a safe adenovirus carrier. They use gene therapy as a method, which was already found to be successful in clinical trials for treatment of certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
While the common intramuscular vaccines produce immunoglobulin G (igG) antibodies in the bloodstream, the nasal vaccine will also produce immunoglobulin A response to protect the mucous membranes, and protect vaccinated people from transmitting the virus.
The Rokote Laboratories vaccine is in animal testing since the spring of 2020, and hopes to move to human trials in the next few months.
2. CanSino Biologics, China.
The intranasal vaccine is the same, as previously approved of this company intramuscular vaccine, already used in Pakistan, Mexico and Hungary, but has an atomisation inhalation device. It consists of weakened flu viruses such as H1N1, H3N2 and B with genetic segments of COVID-19’s Spike (S) protein, which triggers wide immune response.
It’s jointly developed with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Xiamen University and Hong Kong University (HKU), and reached Phase I trial, which enrolled about 100 adults, back in November 2020. Again, it’s a single dose.
Since the beginning of pre-clinical trials, the HKU vaccine has been supported by CEPI, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. The investments are already set up in a 5-year investment plan, in order to tackle the pandemic, and expand the protection, according to current circumstances.
CanSino Biologics intranasal vaccine emphasizes on the unique features of the nose, throat and lungs, and is given a green light for approval of human testing from the Chinese authorities.
3. Oxford University’s Jenner Institute, UK.
That’s another attempt of turning one and the same vaccine – AstraZenecas’ ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (link to second article) from intramuscular to intranasal vaccine.
As this is an early stage of recruiting volunteers for the trials, there are no results yet. Trials will take part for a period of 4 months, and all participants should be 18 – 40 years old, healthy and not vaccinated. Reimbursement is supplied for those, who choose to take a part in schedules for a single and a double-dose groups.
4. Summit Biosciences & Altimmune Inc., USA.
AdCOVID is another vector-based, adenovirus vaccine, aiming at getting a broad immune response and expecting to evaluate the results from its Phase I trial in Q2, 2021.
Under the lead of the University of Kentucky Coldstream Research Campus, the two companies build their partnership in manufacturing a single-dose intranasal COVID-19 vaccine, and are testing on healthy, 18 – 55 year old volunteers, which are to receive one of three dose levels.
5. Bharat Biotech, India.
Besides Covaxin, which successfully finished Phase III trials, the company focuses on a nobel, single-dose intranasal vaccine BBV154, in a partnership with the Washington University School of Medicine.
Pre-clinical studies with animals already showed great success, but Phase I is still in progress, both in India and Saint Louis University’s Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit.
There are a few more countries in development of intranasal COVID-19 vaccines. However, clinical trials are in the early stage of testing so far, and it takes a lot of time and additional research to prove their credibility.
Obviously, time is valuable during the pandemic outbreak, but we need it, if we want to come up with a safe, cost efficient and easy to access solution. The intranasal COVID-19 intranasal vaccines might just be it, adding they’re non-invasive, needles and health workers-free, which is so important for helping the community in such a long-term, life changing and power-sucking situation. They’re suitable for both children and adults, kill the virus at the doorstep, and show no mercy in generating broad immune response, compared to other intramuscular vaccines. But still, they need to be perfect in a world, full of imperfections.
MVS Pharma GmbH is an innovative pharmaceutical start-up company, which researches in the area of reducing viruses and bacteria with plant based aerosols. Their special formula ensures the purity and the stability of the used ingredients during storage.
Liliya Ganeva is an article writer, who explores all the actual, up-to-date COVID-19 information, and the possibilities for producing aerosols made out of plants against respiratory viruses and bacteria.